From the verb 'to pour,' the chous is a broad-bodied jug with a low handle and trefoil mouth. It was used in the Anthesteria
festival and as a measure fixed for participants in drinking bouts (3.28 liters). Small choes were used for children's day,
when 3-year-olds received them.
The column-krater has an articulated neck, whose wide mouth culminates in a broad rim with an overhaning lip. It takes its
name from the two pairs of columnar handles; these attach to handle plates at their top and to the krater shoulder at their
The kylix is a large cup used for drinking wine. It has a relatively shallow bowl, two horizontal handles, and usually, but
not necessarily, a high stem above the foot. There are many types of kylix cups such as Komast, Band, Lip, Siana, Type A,
and Type B.
Type A is the preferred cup shape of black-figure vase painters from about 530 BCE. The cup has a deep bowl without an offset
lip, a low flaring foot with a pronounced concave edge, and usually a fillet between the thick stem and the bowl.
Primarily a red-figure shape, the Type B cup comes in shortly after the invention of the technique and was never popular in
black-figure. The bowl of the cup passes directly into the stem without interruption, the shape of the foot is a torus, and
there is usually a small chamfer on its top surface near the edge.
The Type C cup has a rather shallow bowl and a plain or offset lip. The cup can be stemmed or stemless. The stem, when present,
is very short with a fillet at its base, and the foot is a thick torus. In the stemless versions, there is simply a fillet
between bowl and foot.
The Chalcidising Cup is a type of cup produced in Athens ca. 520 BCE that copies a shape made in southern Italy. Most feature
eyes on the exterior, some with figures (satyrs, Dionysos, warriors), and a gorgoneion in the interior. Their painters are
not named. Findspots are in Etruria, the Black Sea, and Attica.
Covered cups are kylikes that are a type of 'trick vase,' that is, they have fixed lids and contain elaborate internal elements
designed to deceive or amuse an unwary user. Covered cups were produced in Athens for roughly a century beginning around 540
The term 'Little Master cup' is a translation of the German Kleinmeisterschale, alluding to the small scale of the decorative
elements. It has a high-stemmed foot and an offset concave lip. Examples are divided into two categories: lip-cups and band-cups.
Named for the scholar who first studied them, Droop cups (pronounced 'Drope') derive their shape from Little Master cups.
They have concave black lips marked off more clearly from the body than the Little Master cups, a tall-stemmed foot with a
plain fillet and band (sometimes grooved) at the top, and a black toe. There is a broad black band within the hollow foot,
in the bowl a reserved band low in the lip, and sometimes a reserved center disc.
Related to the Little Master cups, Kassel cups have a rather flat, band-cup shape and are generally small. Both the lip and
body are usually covered with simple patterned bands. Tongues are common at the lip, as are rays above the foot, and some
Kassel cups have silhouette figures in the handle zone.
A variation of the Little Master cup, this shape is painted black save for a handle zone that contains a decorated frieze,
unlike lip-cups which are largely plain save for the line that divides the lip and the body.
Named after a site on Rhodes where examples were found, Siana cups can be distinguished from Komast cups by their taller feet
and lips. They are decorated on the tondo (another difference from Komast cups) and there are two schemes for decorating the
exterior. The 'double-decker' type involves two friezes on each side, one on the lip (usually floral), and a figured scene
on the body. The 'overlap' type uses a single frieze on each side to cover the total height of the body and lip. Aspects of
the form and decoration of Siana cups appear to be indebted to East Greek models.
The term refers to a long, semi-circular cover for the knee and thigh, over which wool was drawn to remove dirt. It is wider
at the open end where the thigh is thicker and closed at the narrow end to fit over the knee cap. The top of the epinetron
is covered with an incised scale pattern, which produced the necessary roughness when the wool was rubbed against it. The
shape is uncommon in black-figure.
The term ‘exaleiptron’ comes from the word meaning ‘to anoint,’ and the shape is a low-lidded bowl with a wide shoulder and
high or low foot. It is thought to have held scented water for personal use, for religious ceremonies, and for the grave.
Authorities do not fully agree on the name of this vase and it is also called ‘plemochoё’ and (incorrectly) ‘kothon.’ There
is a tendency to use the name ‘exaleiptron’ for the stemless version of the vase, in particular for the Corinthian examples,
and ‘plemochoё’ for the Athenian high-footed shape, which is also frequently provided with a lid.
The Type A exaleiptron is the earlier of the two types and is differentiated by its shorter, wider flaring foot. Authorities
do not fully agree on the name of this vase and it is also called ‘plemochoё’ and (incorrectly) ‘kothon.’ For further information
on terminology, see 'exaleiptron.'
Pyxides are round, lidded boxes of various shapes and sizes used for cosmetics, powder or jewelry. Some were put in tombs.
The term 'skyphoid-pyxis' is used to designate a shape that became a Sicilian specialty with an ovoid body, a lid, and two
Rarer than but similar to the psykter-amphora, the psykter-calyx-krater is a double-walled vessel meant to cool wine or water.
The outer vessel has a spout near the shoulder through which ice or ice water was poured into the space between the two walls.
It usually has a drain spout just above the foot, directly below the pour spout.
Rarer than but similar to the psykter-amphora, the psykter-column-krater is a double-walled vessel meant to cool wine or water.
The outer vessel has a spout near the shoulder through which ice or ice water was poured into the space between the two walls.
It usually has a drain spout just above the foot, directly below the pour spout.
The pyxis lid varies widely depending on the shape of the pyxis itself. Lids can be flat, concave, domed, or conical and rest
on top of the pyxis or can be deep-sided and slip over the sides of the box. The handles are often knobs or metal rings.
The canonical Type A pyxis has concave sides, a flat floor, and a flanged rim. Some have a low tripartite, quadripartite,
or continuous foot, while others have no foot. The lid is thrown separately and is flat on top with a concave outer edge that
continues and completes the curving concave wall of the pyxis body. It was created from the 6th c. into the first half of
the 4th c. BCE.
The Type C pyxis is a broad, squat version of the Type A and has deeply concave sides resting on a low ring foot. The flanged
lid is convex, often with a metal ring handle. The container is usually twice as wide as it is high. It was made as early
as the mid 5th c. and was popular from the last quarter of the 5th through the first half of the 4th c. BCE.
In size, the Type D pyxis (or box-pyxis) is close to the powder pyxis, but it is more substantially made and was popular during
the late 5th and 4th centuries. It consists of a small cylinder with a flat cover and can be divided into two classes according
to the differing shapes of the lid. The lid consists of a slim flat disc with thickened rim, not unlike the discs and stands,
but provided with a flat area beneath, made to fit the inside of the mouth of the bowl.
Sophilos is an Athenian black-figure painter active ca. 580-570 BCE, who signs vases as both painter (“egrapsen”) and potter
(“epoiesen”). The name derives from a signed dinos (London, British Museum 1971.1101.1; BAPD 350099) showing the Marriage
of Peleus and Thetis. Shapes include the dinos (or lebes), column krater, lekanis, and amphora. Other subjects include the
Kalydonian Boar Hunt, Funeral Games of Patroklos, Helen and Menelaus, Herakles, and centaurs. Findspots include Athens (Acropolis,
Agora, Kerameikos), Aegina, Naukratis, Smyrna, Sardis, and Sicily.
The ring askos is a circular shape with a central cylindrical hole and a high belly with a marked shoulder. Most examples
of the ring askos have been identified as Corinthian or Boeotian and it is thought to be the inspiration for the Attic askos,
which will have a ring foot and a stouter body.
The skyphos-krater is a very large, deep bowl with two horizontal strap handles with returns, and its rim is flanged or incurving
to receive a domed lid. The bowl may be supported by an echinus foot, or joined to a conical stand. The skyphos-krater is
an uncommon shape with a long history, being made from the Late Geometric period to the first quarter of the 6th c. BCE.
The sprinkler varies in size and shape but is generally a round vessel with one or two handles and a flat, perforated bottom.
A small hole at the top was used to fill it with liquid, and when the vessel was shaken the liquid would sprinkle from the
holes in the base. The context in which the sprinkler would have been used is not entirely clear; at least one was found in
the Kerameikos. It may have been used for ritual purification, for lifting and straining wine from a larger vessel, or for
aerating wine as it was sprinkled into a drinking cup. Its shape has been likened to both the mastos and rhyton and is sometimes
(incorrectly) called “klepsydra.”
The stand is much smaller in size than other supports intended to serve as bases for vases. The stand has a wide, flat surface
on top that is often decorated with black- or red-figure. The wide top rests on a stemmed foot, usually with a fillet on the
The Swan Group is a group of Athenian black-figure painters active during the 6th c. BCE. The group is known for decorating
miniature vessels. The name derives from the prevalence of black silhouette swans (often upside down) as decoration. Shapes
include the pyxis, skyphos, lekanis, plate, oinochoe, phiale, and lebes. Findspots are Athens (Agora, Acropolis, Kerameikos),
Attica (Koropi, Eleusis), Tocra (Libya), Syracuse, and Perachora.
The Attic version was made to be filled with imported perfume, the foreign shape providing a recognizable identification of
the contents. From the early Hellenistic period onwards, when the developed fusiform unguentarium had become the usual export
container for perfume, the small Attic black equivalent would have been superfluous.
The Shuvalov Painter was an Attic vase painter of the red-figure style, active between 440 and 410 BC, i.e. in the High Classical
period (Parthenon period). The Shuvalov painter's conventional name was allocated by John Beazley, who chose for a name vase
an amphora that is now at the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg.
Glass is an amorphous solid (non-crystalline) material that exhibits a glass transition, which is the reversible transition
in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials) from a hard and relatively brittle state
into a molten or rubber-like state.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured,
shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts electricity and heat relatively well.
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au (from Latin: aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic
number elements that occur naturally. In a pure form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and
ductile metal. It appears to be the earliest metal to be manipulated by humans.
Nearchos is an Athenian black-figure painter active ca. 570-555 BCE who signed as both potter (“epoiesen”) and painter (“egrapsen”).
Painting in a miniature style, the artist decorated the kantharos, Little Master cup, plaque (pinax), column krater, and aryballos.
Subjects include Herakles, Trojan War, Gigantomachy, Pygmies versus cranes, and Amazons. Findspots include the Athenian Acropolis,
Etruria (Cerveteri, Vulci, Vetulonia), Naukratis, Berezan, and Samos (Heraion).
Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder. Archaeologists and
the stone processing industry use the word differently from geologists. The former use is in a wider sense that includes varieties
of two different minerals: the fine-grained massive type of gypsum and the fine-grained banded type of calcite.
Sir John Beazley used the term group in two different ways. The first was for vases that were closely related but could not
be assigned to a single painter's hand. The second indicates the work of artists with similar or related styles, such as
the Pioneer Group. Some groups, such as the Tyrrhenian Group or the Leagros Group, belong to both categories.
Geometric denotes Greek vases and other arts produced ca. 900-700 BCE. It thus falls between the so-called “Dark Ages” (ca.
1100-900 BCE), a time of limited production in figure-decorated vases, and the Orientalizing stylistic period (ca. 700-600
BCE). The Geometric is usually divided into the following phases: Protogeometric (ca. 1050/1000-900 BCE); Early (ca. 900-850
BCE); Middle (ca. 850-750 BCE); and Late (ca. 750-700 BCE). The term Geometric derives from a discernible development in the
techniques and appearance of pottery, sculpture, and architecture. Chief stylistic trends in vase-painting include the use
of horror vacui (“fear of empty space”), Greek key patterns and other geometric motifs, compass-drawn concentric circles and
semi-circles, and limited representation of figural forms. It applies to the decorated vases of Athens and Attica, and of
other regions of ancient Greece such as Crete, Euboea, Boeotia, Corinth and the Argolid, and East Greece. The main vase-painting
technique in Athens and Attica is silhouette, and in the Late Geometric silhouette is sometimes combined with cross-hatching
and outline. Major Athenian painters include the Dipylon Master and the Hirschfeld Painter, both of whom specialized in decorating
large vessels associated with funerary rites.
The OLL Group (Oxford-Leipzig-Louvre) is a group of Athenian black-figure painters active ca. 565-550 BCE. The group consists
of painters of the ovoid neck amphora with mythological subjects and animal friezes. The vases are sometimes included in the
Tyrrhenian Group. The incorporation of a large figural frieze distinguishes them from the Tyrrhenian Group. Findspots include
Cerveteri, Rhodes, and the Athenian Acropolis.
Plemochoё' means 'full-pouring,’ and the shape is a low-lidded bowl with a wide shoulder and high foot. It is thought to have
held scented water for personal use, for religious ceremonies, and for the grave. Authorities do not fully agree on the name
of this vase and it is also called ‘exaleiptron’ and (incorrectly) ‘kothon.’ There is a tendency to use the name ‘exaleiptron’
for the stemless version of the vase, in particular for the Corinthian examples, and ‘plemochoё’ for the Athenian high-footed
shape, which is also frequently provided with a lid.
The FP Class is a group of Athenian black-figure cups dated to the late 6th c. BCE and characterized by large palmettes next
to the handles. The acronym “FP” stands for “flower palmette.” Scenes include courtship, Theseus and the Minotaur, riders,
and dancers. Findspots are in Greece, Sicily, Italy, and Naukratis.
The Group of Walters 48.42 is a group of Athenian black-figure cups produced ca. 530-520 BCE. Considered to be part of the
Krokotos Workshop, the name derives from a cup (Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery 48.42; BAPD 302634) showing Dionysos’ head
between eyes on the exterior. The group is characterized by Type A cups that feature eyes on the exterior, some with figures
(satyrs, maenads, Herakles, Nereus), and a gorgoneion in the interior. Findspots include Vulci, Roselle, Falerii, and Athens.
The Group of the Courting Cups is a group of Athenian black-figure eye cups (Type A) dating to the late 6th c. BCE. The name
derives from homosexual courting couples shown on the exterior. A gorgoneion is portrayed in the interior. Some examples are
attributed to the FP Class. Findspots are Berezan, Vulci, Thebes, Sicily, and Ampurias (Spain).
The Group of Toronto 305 are a group of Athenian black-figure painters active in the last quarter of the 6th c. BCE. They
are considered followers of the Antimenes Painter. The name derives from an amphora (Toronto, Royal Ontario Museum 305; BAPD
320246) featuring Dionysos and Herakles. Decorating mainly the amphora, subjects include warriors, riders, Dionysian scenes,
Herakles, and Amazons. Findspots are sites in Etruria and Kerch.
The Hypobibazon Class denotes a group of Athenian black-figure vases made around 510 BCE. The name derives from an amphora
discovered in the Athenian Kerameikos (Athens, Kerameikos 158; BAPD 301866) showing a warrior about to mount a horse. The
shape associated with the class is a belly amphora (Type B) with rounded handles and feet. Painters of this class prefer daily
life scenes. Findspots are sites in Athens (Agora, Acropolis, Kerameikos) and Eleusis.
The Perizoma Group is a group of Athenian black-figure painters active from the last quarter of the 6th c. BCE. The name derives
from the white loincloth (“perizoma”) worn by athletes and dancers. Shapes include the stamnos, small neck amphora, and one-handled
kantharos (an Etruscan shape). Scenes are athletes and the symposion. Findspots include mostly Etruscan sites, with stray
finds in Gela and Rhodes.
The Haimon Group is a group of Athenian black-figure painters active in the early decades of the 5th c. BCE. The name derives
from the association with the Haimon Painter. Associated with the large output of the group are the Haimon Painter, Pholos
Painter, Ure’s Class of Skyphoi K 2, Lancut Group, and the Painter of the Half-Palmettes. The main shapes are the lekythos,
skyphos, mastos, and oinochoe. Findspots are Athens (Kerameikos, Agora, Acropolis), Olympia, Tanagra, sites in Italy, Olbia
and Berezan, Miletus, and Naukratis.
The Keyside Class denotes a group of Athenian black-figure painters active late 6th to early 5th c. BCE. The name derives
from two vases (Würzburg, Martin von Wagner Museum 347; BAPD 303245; and Würzburg, Martin von Wagner Museum 345; BAPD 303249)
with a key-pattern as a side border. Attributed to the class are the Leagros Group, Group of Vatican G49, Painter of Sèvres
100, and Class of Athens 581. The main shape is the oinochoe. Subjects include Dionysos and followers, Herakles, dancers,
the symposion, and Amazon. Findspots are Vulci, other Etruscan sites, and sites in southern Italy and Sicily.
The klepsydra, or water clock, was used to enforce time limits on speeches in Athenian law courts. The pots were filled to
a specific level, and as the water drained from a hole near the bottom, marked off the time limit. Approaching the end of
the limit, the stream would have diminished perceptibly as the pressure lessened and would have been apparent not only to
the orator but to its listeners.
The Komast Group is a group of Athenian black-figure painters active from ca. 585-570 BCE or later. The name derives from
the prevalence of male revelers ("komasts" or “komast dancers”) decorating many vessels. The main shapes are the Komast cup,
skyphos, and column krater. Painters include the KX Painter, KY Painter, the Falmouth Painter, and the Palazzolo Painter.
Findspots are widespread and include Athens, Naukratis, Taranto, Ampurias, Miletus, and Berezan.
The Pistias Class denotes a group of Athenian black-figure painters active late 6th to early 5th c. BCE, sometimes using white-ground.
Several examples have been attributed to the Haimon Painter. Shapes include the footless skyphos (also termed a footed mastos),
other versions of the skyphos, cups, and the lekythos. Scenes are revelers (“komasts”), Dionysos and followers, youths, horsemen,
and Herakles. Findspots are Athens (Agora, Kerameikos), Rhitsona, Vrastina Kalyvia (Chalkidike), and Etruscan sites (Bologna,
The Tyrrhenian Group is a group of Athenian black-figure painters active ca. 570-550 BCE who decorate the ovoid neck amphora
with human figures and multiple animal friezes. The name derives from the large number of vessels discovered in Etruria (located
in Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea). Painters of the group include the Castellani Painter, the Goltyr Painter, the Guglielmi
Painter, the Timiades Painter, and the Kyllenios Painter. Despite some controversy about their place of manufacture, petrographic
analysis indicates that the vases were produced in Athens. Many of the vases have “nonsense inscriptions” in Greek. The major
finds spots are sites in Etruria, while some have been discovered in Athens (Agora, Acropolis, Kerameikos), Miletus, Ionia
(Turkey), Cyrene, and Naukratis.
The Group of the Paidikos Alabastra is a group of red-figure painters active ca. 520-500 BCE, who decorate a single shape
(the alabastron). The name derives from the potter (“epoiesen”) who signs as Paidikos on an alabastron from Eretria (Paris,
Louvre CA487; BAPD 200865) showing a youth and a woman. Some white-ground vases assigned to the group are signed “epoiesen”
by the potter Pasiades. Painters associated with the group include the Euergides Painter (see Euergides Painter [Red-figure])
and the Pasiades Painter (see Pasiades Painter [Red-figure]). Some findspots are Athens (Acropolis, unspecified sites), Boeotia,
Miletus, Delphi, Eretria, Ampurias (Spain), and Bologna.
The psykter-amphora is a double-walled container whose walls are attached at the neck and at the base, the outer vessel having
a spout at the shoulder through which ice or ice water was poured into the space between the two walls. It usually has a drain
spout just above the foot, directly below the pour spout. The shape was probably only produced in the 6th c. BCE.
The Agrigento Painter is an Athenian red-figure painter active ca. 470-440 BCE and a member of the Mannerist Group. The name
derives from a calyx krater from Agrigento (Agrigento, Archaeological Museum; BAPD 206657) showing Herakles and Nessos. Other
shapes are the column-krater, bell krater, stamnos, pelike, dinos, amphora, and hydria. Scenes include Herakles, Theseus,
Dionysos and followers, Amazons, the symposion, revelers (“komasts”), musicians, warriors, and generic males (youths, boys,
men). Some findspots are Bologna, Spina, Tarquinia, sites in southern Italy and Sicily, the Athenian Agora, Corinth, Rheneia
(Delos), Ampurias (Spain), and Naukratis.
The Burgon Group is a group of Athenian black-figure painters dated to the second quarter of the 6th c. BCE. Attributed to
this group is the first complete Panathenaic amphora, the Burgon Vase (London, British Museum B130; BAPD 300828), named for
the scholar who discovered it. Other shapes include the oinochoe, plate, and pyxis. Subjects are daily life and Ajax and Achilles.
A pinax (plaque) from Athens represents a scene of prothesis (laying out the body of the deceased). Findspots include Athens,
Rhodes, Naukratis, and Brauron.
The Class of the Vatican G47 denotes a group of Athenian black-figure painters active late 6th to early 5th c. BCE who decorate
oinochoe. The name derives from an oinochoe found at Vulci (Rome, Vatican G47; BAPD 303297) showing a maenad riding a bull.
Attributed to the class are the Painter of Oxford 226 and Painter of Oxford 225. Scenes include chariots, Dionysos and followers,
warriors, Achilles and Ajax, and Herakles. Findspots are Vulci, Knossos, Amathus (Cyprus), and Corinth.
The Dolphin Group are a group of black-figure painters active in the mid-6th c. BCE. Originally considered to be Athenian,
the group has also been associated with Euboea. The name derives from the dolphins on the shoulder of the vessels. The primary
shape is the lekythos. Scenes are of animals and floral motifs. Findspots include Athens (Kerameikos, Agora), Ialysos (Rhodes),
Cerveteri, and sites in Euboea.
The Group of Rhodes 12264 is a group of Athenian black-figure painters of Little Master cups and other cup shapes active beginning
in the mid-6th c. BCE. The name derives from a Droop cup discovered at Camiros, Rhodes (Rhodes, Archaeological Museum 12264;
BAPD 302520) showing a fight with a chariot on both sides. Other subjects are fights with chariots, Theseus, animals, and
the interiors of stemless cups are decorated with a gorgoneion. Findspots include Xanthos (Turkey), Rhtisona, Rhodes, Samos,
Spain, and Italy.
The Eye-Siren Group is a group of Athenian black-figure painters active ca. 520-500 BCE. They are considered followers of
the Antimenes Painter. The name derives from a neck amphora (London, British Museum B215; BAPD 320288) displaying sirens with
large eyes on their bodies and showing Peleus and Thetis on one side with Apollo on the other. Though mainly decorating the
amphora, including some Panathenaics, other shapes are the hydria and a cup. Subjects include warriors, Herakles, Amazons,
and Dionysian scenes. Examples have been discovered in Etruria.
A rock is any naturally occurring solid mass or aggregate of minerals or mineraloid matter. It is categorized by the minerals
included, its chemical composition and the way in which it is formed. Rocks are usually grouped into three main groups: igneous
rocks, metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks.
Hermonax is an Athenian red-figure painter active ca. 475-450 BCE. The name derives from the signature as painter (“egrapsen”)
on several vases. Shapes are the stamnos, pelike, neck amphora, loutrophoros, oinochoe, lekythos, lekanis, and cups. Subjects
include Dionysos and followers, revelers (“komasts”), weddings, warriors, the Death of Orpheus, Zeus and Ganymede, Boreas
and Oreithyia, Eros and lovers, and youths and young women. Some findspots are sites in southern Italy and Sicily, Cerveteri,
Ampurias (Spain), Athens (Agora, Acropolis), Argos, Brauron, Camiros (Rhodes), and Xanthos (Turkey).
The Leafless Group is a group of Athenian black-figure painters active late 6th to early 5th c. BCE. The name derives from
the leafless branches added to the scenes. Shapes include kylix cups (Type A, Type B), the kyathos, and mastoid cups. The
scenes are mainly Dionysian. Findspots include Turkey (Smyrna, Xanthos, Clazomenae), Athens (Agora, Acropolis), Adria (Adriatic
coast of Italy), Olbia, and Camiros (Rhodes).
The Piraeus Painter is an Athenian black-figure painter active ca. 620-600 BCE, who painted the amphora. The name derives
from a neck amphora found in Piraeus (Athens, National Museum 353; BAPD 300012) showing chariots. Findspots include Athens
The Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA) is an encyclopedic art museum located at Newfields, a 152-acre campus near downtown Indianapolis.
The Indianapolis Museum of Art is the ninth oldest and eighth largest encyclopedic art museum in the United States. The permanent
collection comprises over 54,000 works, including African, American, Asian, and European pieces.
‘Rhyton’ comes from a word for 'flow.' The term is used to denote a one-handled drinking cup whose bowl is fashioned into
the shape of an animal’s head (sheep, donkey, etc.) or occasionally a more complex creation (pygmy and crane, African child
and crocodile, mounted Amazon, camel and driver). It was originally made from horn, hence its shape. The idea was borrowed
An uncommon form of the kantharos. The elements of foot, lower and upper walls and rim are the same as for the moulded-rim
kantharos, but the single handle spans from the upper part of the lower wall to the bottom edge of the moulding. Lacking a
spur, the cup is narrower than typical kantharoi, and while it is sometimes ribbed it is never found with stamping.
Lead is a chemical element with the symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal that is denser
than most common materials. Lead is soft and malleable, and also has a relatively low melting point.
The Affecter is an Athenian black-figure painter (and possibly potter) active ca. 540-520 BCE. The name derives from the mannerist
(i.e. affected) style of the figures. Shapes are various amphora types, including ovoid and Type C, as well as smaller shapes.
Subjects include stock iconography (draped, men, warriors, riders, dancers) and myth (Herakles, Theseus). Findspots include
Etruria, southern Italy, Naukratis, and Greece.
Lekanis lids from the 6th through early 5th c. were convex and created an almost circular appearance with the lekanis itself.
For the rest of the 5th and into the 4th c., the lid became flatter, answering the parallel development of the bowl. The lid
generally has a central stem or knob for a handle.
The loutrophoros, meaning ‘carrying to the bath,’ was a vessel used for ritual cleaning. It is a tall version of the neck-amphora
with two very long vertical handles. A slightly different version imitates the hydria with two horizontal and one vertical
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite. Marble is typically
not foliated, although there are exceptions. In geology, the term marble refers to metamorphosed limestone, but its use in
stonemasonry more broadly encompasses unmetamorphosed limestone. Marble is commonly used for sculpture and as a building material.